It is also difficult to ascertain that what kind of political setup was prevailed at the time of theHarappancivilization.
A male deity, which depiction Siva asPasupati(i.e. the prototype of the historic Siva), is portrayed on a seal with three faces, seated on a low throne in the typical posture of a Yogi, with two animals on each side – elephant and tiger on right and rhinoceros and buffalo on left, and two deer standing under the throne.
Swastika, a sacred symbol with Hindus, Buddhists, and Jaina has been depicted on seals, painting, and graffiti.
The skeletal remains are few in comparison to the size of settlements and the population that may have lived on them.
Ancient Indian History – Harappan Religion
TheHarappansociety appears to have been divided into three sections, viz.
A large number of female figurines of terracotta have been found, which are the representations of the Great Mother Goddess.
A terracotta piece havinglingaandyoniin one piece found fromKalibangan. People of Kalibangan region were worshiped the symbolic representation ofSivaandSaktirespectively.
Ancient Indian History – Online Test
AtKalibangan, it appears that the priests resided in the upper part of the citadel and performed rituals on fire altars in the lower part of it.
South India during the Harsha Period
A large number of fire-altars have been found from the sites located in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Haryana. FromKalibangan, Lothal,andBanawalia number of fire-altars have been found.
Worship of inanimate stones or other objects, of
The entire area of Indus Empire was administered from one capital, with a few regional administrative centers or provincial capitals.
A large number of terracotta figurines depict the individuals in various yogic postures (asanas) indicating thereby that theHarappanspracticed yoga.
Chrematheism as illustrated in the worship of the sacred incense-burners;
It is, however, difficult to say whether these divisions were based purely on the economic factors or had a socio-religious basis.
Scattered burials, as well as discreet cemeteries, have been found at many major sites.
These characteristics suggest that the religion was mainly of an indigenous growth and the lineal progenitor of Hinduism, which is characterized by most of the features.
Ancient Indian History – Quick Guide
A striking rectangle sealing found atHarapparepresents the Earth or Mother Goddess with a plant growing from her womb.
Worship of animals, nature, semi human, or fabulous;
Ancient Indian History – Online Quiz
A relatively weaker section, occupying the lower town, which was generally fortified.
Worship of trees in their natural state or of their indwelling spirits;
The available evidence indicates that the religion of the Indus people comprised of
Cremation was also practiced, which has been proved by many cinerary urns or other receptacles containing calcined human bones and ashes together with vessel offerings for the use of a dead person in the next life.
The Craftsmen and laborers normally were resided outside the fortified area.
Worship of a male deity, probably of Lord Siva;
Historiography Nationalist Approach
An elite class associated with the Citadel;
Faith in amulets and charms indicative of demonophobia; and
There are generally two aspects of Harappan religion
The general practice was that skeletons were placed in an extended position with the head towards the north. Earthen pots containing food grains, etc. were placed in the grave and, in some cases, the body was buried with ornaments.
Ancient Indian History – Discussion
During 1,000 B.C., the area was divided into sixteenMahajanapadaseach independent with its own capital.
A remarkable seal, found atMohenjo Daro, standing between two branches of apipaltree, represents the deity.
There were several independent states or kingdoms, each with cities likeMohenjo Daroin Sindh,Harappain Punjab,Kalibanganin Rajasthan, andLothalin Gujarat as their capitals.