June 11 2018

The growth of trade in Greece led to the development offinancialtechniques. Most merchants, lacking sufficient cashassets, resorted to borrowing to finance all or part of their expeditions. A typical loan for a large venture in 4th century BC Athens, was generally a large sum of cash (usually less than 2,000 drachmas), lent for a short time (the length of the voyage, a matter of several weeks or months), at a high rate ofinterest(often 12% but reaching levels as high as 100%). The terms of the contract were always laid out in writing, differing from loans between friends (eranoi). The lender bore all the risks of the journey, in exchange for which the borrower committed his cargo and his entire fleet, which were precautionarily seized upon their arrival at the port ofPiraeus.

Rothbard, Murray (2006).It all began, as usual, with the Greeks.

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Without the Nile River, all of Egypt would be desert. Only about an inch (2.5 centimeters) of rain falls throughout Egypt each year. But each summer, the river rises because of rains at its source far to the south in Ethiopia. Floods cover the rivers valleys, leaving sediments needed for trees, plants, and crops to grow.

The potters work consisted of selecting the clay, fashioning the vase, drying and painting and baking it, and applying varnish. Part of the production went to domestic usage (dishes, containers, oil lamps) or for commercial purposes, and the rest served religious or artistic functions. Techniques for working with clay have been known since theBronze Age; thepotters wheelis a very ancient invention. The ancient Greeks did not add any innovations to these processes[citation needed].

. Routledge, 2004.ISBN0-415-31555-7. p. 17.

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A large section of the population worked as farmers and noblemen The money-barter system the economy was strictly controlled the ancient egyptians didnt coins until the late period. Instead they used the money-barter system to trade goods. Workers were paid in grains and prices were fixed and reported. Ancient Trade Routes Alliances Farming and Fishing

It later collapsed due to the high taxing but with some changes it continued on The EndAncient Egypt Economy, Trade and Allianc

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Men weighing merchandise, side B of an Attic black-figure amphora

Egyptians have always been close to the natural world. The ancient Egyptians left paintings and carvings of large animals like elephants,hipposleopards, andcheetahs. These animals were once common in Egypt, but they are now rare or extinct because of hunting and habitat loss.

Greeces main exports were olive oil,winepottery, andmetalwork. Imports includedgrainsandporkfromSicilyArabiaEgyptAncient CarthageBosporan Kingdom.

Lizards of the Ancient Empire are cultured aristocrats Source adepts who follow the rules of law. Outsiders see their society as elitist. Lizards see outsiders as servants.

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European powers played an increasing role in Egypt starting in the late 18th century. In 1882, the British invaded and occupied Egypt. The British wanted control of the Suez Canal, which linked the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and greatly shortened the sailing trip from Asia to Europe. Egypt gained full independence from Great Britain in 1952 and took control of the Suez Canal in 1956.

Pottery in ancient Greece was most often the work of slaves. Many of the potters of Athens assembled between theagoraand the Dipylon, in theKerameikon. They most often operated as small workshops, consisting of a master, several paid artisans, and slaves.

Greek soil has been likened to stinginess or tightness (Ancient Greek:stenokhôra,ί) which helps explainGreek colonialismand the importance of thecleruchiesofAsia Minorin controlling the supply ofwheat. Theolive treeand grapevine were complemented by the cultivation ofherbsvegetables, and oil-producing plants.Husbandrywas badly developed due to a lack of available land.Sheepandgoatswere the most common types of livestock. Woods were heavily exploited, first for domestic use and eventually to buildtriremesBeeswere kept to producehoney, the only source ofsugarknown to the ancient Greeks.

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By 1000 B.C., Egypt had split into smaller parts and the kingdom was in decline. Strong neighbors attacked and took over Egyptian territory. In 31 B.C., Egypt fell under Roman control. In A.D. 640, Muslim warriors took over Egypt and founded the modern capital, Cairo. They ruled for several centuries. In the 16th century, Egypt became part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.

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The shopping centers in Ancient Greece were calledagoras. The literal meaning of the word is gathering place or assembly. The agora was the center of the athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city. TheAncient Agora of Athenswas the best-known example. Early in Greek history (18th century8th century BC), free-born citizens would gather in the agora for military duty or to hear statements of the ruling king or council. Every city had its own agora where merchants could sell their products. There waslinenfromEgyptIvoryfromAfricaSpicesfromSyria, and more. Prices were rarely fixed, so bargaining was a common practice.

Agriculture created most of Egypts wealth

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Most of the things mined were not that great of interest to anyone but a small number of rich people. Energy The main energy source of ancient times was muscle power from the people

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, edited by Elio Lo Cascio and Dominic Rathbone, 37-43. Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society, 2000.

The Origins of International Economics

. Expanded and updated English edition. Translated by Steven Rendall. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Arabic is the official language of Egypt. Classical Arabic is the written language. It is used for conducting official business. Colloquial (informal) Arabic is the spoken language of the street. Both forms are used by the media, for business transactions, and in schools. Colloquial Arabic is widely used on television, which is very popular, and in the film industry. It is also used in songs and folk literature and popular poetry.

The Coptic language developed from ancient Egyptian. It was spoken in Egypt until the 1100s but is now used only in ceremonies of the Coptic Church. Nubian is spoken by the Egyptians who live south of Aswan. Beja is the language of the nomads who live along the Egyptian-Sudanese border east of the Nile. Berber is spoken by the people of Siwa, an oasis of the Libyan Desert. Nubian and Beja are not written languages.

The economy of the Greek cities: From the Archaic period to the early Roman Empire

Direct taxation was not well-developed in ancient Greece. Theeisphor(ἰά) was a tax on the wealth of the very rich, but it was levied only when needed usually in times of war. Large fortunes were also subject toliturgieswhich was the support of public works. Liturgies could consist of, for instance, the maintenance of atrireme, achorusduring atheatrefestival, or agymnasium. In some cases, the prestige of the undertaking could attract volunteers (analogous in modern terminology to endowment, sponsorship, or donation). Such was the case for thechoragus, who organized and financed choruses for a drama festival. In other instances, like the burden of outfitting and commanding a trireme, the liturgy functioned more like a mandatory donation (what we would today call a one-time tax). In some cities, likeMiletusandTeos, heavy taxation was imposed on citizens.

Donlan, Walter. The Homeric economy. In

Along with oil and gas exports, Egypts tourism industry remains a key part of its economy. Visitors flock to the country to see ancient monuments like the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx.

Production and Public Powers In Classical Antiquity

There are many interesting facts onthe Ancient Egyptians.Most of them created the modern world. It was said that in the ancient world,Ancient Egyptianswere famous for being the richest country. First of all, they traded a lot with the Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, and theRed SeaAncient Egypttraded things like gold, wheat, barley, papyrus sheets, a lot of gold, silver, and copper, very precious stones and metals. Second,the Ancient Egyptianshad many great accomplishments because they traded a lot of important and rare objects.The Ancient Egyptianstraded with among other countries. They traded things like gold and incense. The Nubians built canals to make trading easier. Next, the economy of theAncient Egyptianswas also called theAncient CommandEconomy. The economies are planned, monitored, and controlled by the Pharaoh, after the successful businessmen paid their taxes, they stored their surpluses for future use or exchanged in the market. In the early period, they used a barter system until a later period, they were introduced to coined money by foreigners. These are the facts whyEgyptwas a very high economy country that had a developed economy system that is controlled by a Pharaoh.

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were just used as standardized pieces of metal and then later become a regular currency JEWS- The Jewesh people of Israel were conqered and forced into labour. The Jews have a link to the Old Testament in Egypt with the story of Moses. Although no solid evidence has been found to prove this story in Egypt, objects have been located relating to a Jewish family from the Persain era. The End Population There trade links increased since they could transport goods across the seas Most of the people who lived in Egypt lived among the land and in little villages

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Egypt and other neighboring Arab countries fought a series of wars with the Jewish state of Israel into the 1970s. In 1979 Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement.

The first people to live on the banks of the Nile were hunters and fishermen, who settled there over 8,000 years ago. They learned to grow crops and raise animals, and they began to build villages and towns. They traded with their neighbors and learned to sail boats. By 3000 B.C., a civilization was established.

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Egypt is home to a wide variety of animals and plants, including jackals, gazelles,crocodiles, and cobras. The best places to see Egypts wildlife are in its more than 20 protected regions, which include oases, deserts, mountains, coastal areas, river islands, and wetlands.

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Southern Egypts landscape contains low mountains and desert. Northern Egypt has wide valleys near the Nile and desert to the east and west. North of Cairo, the capital, is the sprawling, triangular Nile River Delta. This fertile land is completely covered with farms.

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In the ancient era, most land was held by thearistocracy. During the7th centuryBC, demographic expansion and the distribution ofsuccessionscreated tensions between these landowners and the peasants. InAthens, this was changed bySolons reforms, which eliminateddebt bondageand protected the peasant class. Nonetheless, a Greek aristocrats domains remained small compared with theRomanlatifundia.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any nation. It came into being about 3200 B.C. King Menes (also called Narmer) united the cities of northern and southern Egypt under one government. During his time, the giant statue known as the Sphinx was built. It appears part human and part b

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Egypt is often divided into two sections: Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the north. The sections are named this way because the Nile flows from south to north. The river empties into the Mediterranean Sea.

. 2d ed. Sather Classical Lectures 48. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1985.

. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.

Foraboschi, Daniele. The Hellenistic economy: indirect intervention by the state. In

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Fish from the Nile were caught Markets were usually grouped together near Quay Sides, since ships and boats were the cheapest and fastest way of transportation. Merchants would compete against eachother for lower and better prices, more customers means more goods. Mining

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Around 1000 B.C., Egyptian power declined. Between this time and 331 B.C., Egypt was ruled in turn by the Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, and Persians. In 331 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great. On Alexanders death one of his generals became ruler of Egypt, as Ptolemy I. The dynasty (ruling family) of the Ptolemies ended in 30 B.C. Cleopatra was the last of the Ptolemies. She was famous for her love for the Roman Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony). When the Romans defeated her armies, she took her own life. Egypt then became a Roman province.

Animals were used for moving things and for transportation, they relied on them for several tasks

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TheLizardsracial ability isDragons Blaze.

. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2009.

Theeconomy of ancient Greecewas defined largely by the regions dependence on imported goods. As a result of the poor quality ofGreecesoil, agricultural trade was of particular importance. The impact of limited crop production was somewhat offset by Greeces paramount location, as its position in theMediterraneangave its provinces control over some of Egypts most crucial seaports and trade routes. Beginning in the 6th century BC, tradecraftsmanshipandcommerce, principallymaritime, became pivotal aspects of Greek economic output.

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Much of the craftsmanship of ancient Greece was part of thedomestic sphere. However, the situation gradually changed between the 8th and 4th centuries BC, with the increased commercialization of the Greek economy. Thus,weavingandbaking, activities so important to the Westernlate medievaleconomy, were done only by women before the 6th century BC. After the growth of commerce,slavesstarted to be used widely in workshops. Only finedyedtissues, like those made withTyrian purple, were created in workshops. On the other hand,working with metalleatherwood, orclaywas a specialized activity that was looked down upon by most Greeks.

Principles and Practice in Classical Worlds Economy

On the other hand, indirect taxes were quite important. Taxes were levied on houses, slaves, herds and flocks, wines, and hay, among other things. The right to collect many of these taxes was often transferred topublicans, ortelônai(ῶ). However, this was not true of all cities.and Athens taxes on business allowed them to eliminate these indirect taxes. Dependent groups such as thePenestaeofThessalyand theHelotsofSpartawere taxed by the city-states to which they were subject.

Parallel to the professional merchants were those who sold the surplus of their household production such as vegetables, olive oil, or bread. This was the case for many of the small-scale farmers ofAttica. Among townsfolk, this task often fell to the women. for the prfect For instance,Euripidesmother soldchervilfrom her garden (cf.Aristophanes,The Acharnians, v. 477-478).

Children are highly valued in Egypt, especially in rural areas where they help on family farms. Children are also expected to look after their parents in their old age.

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From 239 BCE during Roman rule. The introduction of coined money

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Coinage probably began inLydiaaround 600 BC, and circulated in the cities ofAsia Minorunder its control.[4]Earlyelectrumcoins have been found at theTemple of DianaatEphesus. The technique ofminting coinsarrived in mainland Greece around 550 BC, beginning with coastal trading cities likeAeginaand Athens. Their use spread, and thecity-statesquickly secured a monopoly on their creation. The very first coins were made fromelectrum(an alloy of gold and silver), followed by pure silver, the most commonly found valuable metal in the region. The mines of the Pangaeon hills allowed the cities ofThraceandMacedonto mint a large quantity of coins. Lauriums silver mines provided the raw materials for the Athenian owls, the most famous coins of the ancient Greek world. Less-valuablebronzecoins appeared at the end of the 5th century.

came around the fifth century BCE from abroad.At first the coins

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Coins played several roles in the Greek world. They provided amedium of exchange, mostly used by city-states to hiremercenariesand compensate citizens. They were also a source of revenue as foreigners had to change their money into the local currency at anexchange ratefavorable to the State. They served as a mobile form of metal resources, which explains discoveries of Athenian coins with high levels of silver at great distances from their home city. Finally, the minting of coins lent an air of undeniable prestige to any Greek city or city state.

About 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslim, which means they are followers of the Islamic religion. About 10 percent of Egyptians are Copts, one of the oldest branches of the Christian religion.

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The Greeks would also have animals like cows, goats and chickens.

Trade in ancient Greece was free: the state controlled only the supply of grain. In Athens, following the first meeting of the newPrytaneis, trade regulations were reviewed, with a specialized committee overseeing the trade in wheat, flour, and bread.

Deposits of metaloreare common in Greece. Of these, the best known are thesilvermines ofLaurium. These mines contributed to the development of Athens in the 5th century BC, when the Athenians learned to prospect, treat, and refine the ore. Fortuitously, the composition of the earth below the mines rendered drainage unnecessary, an important provision given that ancient mine drainage techniques did not allow for excavation below the level of subsoil waters. The passageways and steps of Greek mines were dug out with the same concern for proportion and harmony found in theirtemples. The work was extremely difficult, due to the tunnels depththey were sometimes more than 100 metres (110yd) deep. The miner, armed with hispickandand hunched over in two, labored to extractlead ore. The Laurium mines were worked by a large slave population, originating for the most part fromBlack Searegions such asThraceandPaphlagonia. Weapons, armor tools, and a variety of other goods were created with these metals.

The number of shipwrecks found in the Mediterranean Sea provides valuable evidence of the development of trade in the ancient world. Only two shipwrecks were found that dated from the 8th century BC. However, archeologists have found forty-six shipwrecks dated from the 4th century BC, which would appear to indicate that there occurred a very large increase in the volume of trade between these centuries. Considering that the average ship tonnage also increased in the same period, the total volume of trade increased probably by a factor of 30.

They knew how to make fire and used the wind for energy when they sailed Slavery Most people who were slaves did labour work like mining, transporting things or building pyramids Taxation Ancient Egypt was known to be the most heavily taxed nation

The Cambridge economic history of the Greco-Roman world

Egypts geography, population, history, and military strength have made it highly influential in the region. Egypt is a democratic republic, although some critics claim that it is not truly democratic. Until 2005, there was never more than one presidential candidate to vote for.

The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy: Institutions, Markets, and Growth In the City-States

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, edited by Ian Morris and Barry B. Powell, 649-67. New York: E.J. Brill, 1997.

AREA: 386,662 square miles (1,001,449 square kilometers)

The main participants in Greek commerce were the class of traders known asemporoi(ἕ). The state collected adutyon their cargo. AtPiraeus(the mainportof Athens), this tax was set initially at 1%, then at 2%. By the end of the 5th century, the tax had been raised to 33talentsAndocides, I, 133-134). In 413, Athens ended the collection oftributefrom theDelian Leagueand imposed a 5% duty on all the ports of her empire (Thucydides, VII, 28, 4) in the hope (unrealized) of increasing revenues. These duties were neverprotectionist, but were merely intended to raise money for the public treasury.

Grain, vegetables, fruit, cattle, goats, pigs and fowl were grown and taken care of

Ancient Egypt Economy, Trade, and Alliances TRADE Trade started in ancient egpyt around the fourth century B.C. AHAHIYAWA- A small country near Egypt is mentioned to have had a close relationship with Egypt in the Hittite Records. It is not know exactly where this city was located, it is believed that it could have been located on one of the islands of Crete, Rhodes or Cyprus. This lasted from 1400 B.C until Egypt was taken over by the Romans in 550 BCE. Economy The Ancient Egyptains traded with countries that were around the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea AKAWASHA- Part of the Sea-People, Allies with Egyptians during mid 1200s BCE. Eventually attempted to attack Egypt along with Lybia in the fifth year of Merneptas reign. No record of their city but the alliance and a record of a Akawashians hand getting amputated for stealing. The goods they trade for are things like silver,copper,animal skin and the main products they need are gold, wheat and barley. ASSYRIANS- Egypt and Assyria were mainly in conflict. They fought over the states in Syria and Palestine. Eventually, Assyria invaded Egypt and was forced to flee south. In 664 BCE The Assyrians invaded yet again this time capturing one of Egypts main cities, Thedes. In 616 BCE Assyria and Egypt forged an alliance due to threats from Babylonia and Medes. PERSIA- Had the largest Empire in the world at that time. The persain Empire stretched from Centrel Asia to Indus, and from Egypt to the Meditteranian. The alliance lasted 200 years until the fall of the Persains ROMANS- The Romans conquerd and ruled Egypt from 550 BCE to around 600 AD. Egypt was governed by the Roman senate therfore was no longer a independant country. With the conquering of Egypt came loss of thier kings, capital cities, and religion. Under Roman rule the main purpose for Egypt was to produce grain for the people of Rome. Ancient Egyption Currency

. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2012.

Around 3100 B.C., the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were unified under a powerful king, later called a pharaoh. These kings built huge pyramids, temples, and other monuments. They also conquered other lands.

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Since it was so labor-intensive, up to 80% of the Greek population were employed in the agricultural industry. Agricultural work followed the rhythm of the seasons: harvestingolivesand trimminggrapevinesat the beginning ofautumnand the end ofwinter; setting asidefallowland in the spring; harvestingcerealsin thesummer; cutting wood, sowing seeds, and harvesting grapes in autumn.

While peasants and artisans often sold their own wares, there were also retail merchants known askploi(ά). Grouped intoguilds, they sold fish, olive oil, and vegetables. Women soldperfumeorribbons. Merchants were required to pay a fee for their space in the marketplace. They were viewed poorly by the general population, andAristotlelabeled their activities as: a kind of exchange which is justly censured, for it is unnatural, and a mode by which men gain from one another.[3]

Greece lacked a consolidated, centralized economy in the modern sense of the word. There was a relative absence of contemporary phrases to describe overarching systems of commerce and trade organization, and economics was primarily understood in terms of the localized management of necessary goods.[1]However, economistMurray Rothbardnotes thatancient Greek philosopherswere concerned with questions that would today fall under the discipline of economic theory.[2]

In 2011, a popular uprising toppled Egypts long-time president, Hosni Mubarek. The country has held several democratic elections since 2011, but the role of the military in government remains strong.

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The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World

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The creation of artistically decorated vases in Greece had strong foreign influences. For instance, the famedblack-figure styleofCorinthianpotters was most likely derived from the Syrian style of metalworking. The heights to which the Greeks brought the art of ceramics is therefore due entirely to their artistic sensibilities and not to technical ingenuity.

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The basic workshop was often family-operated.Lysiasshieldmanufacture employed 120 slaves;Demosthenesfather, a maker ofswords, used 32. After the death ofPericlesin 429 BC, a new class emerged: that of the wealthy owners and managers of workshops. Examples includeCleonandAnytus, notedtanneryowners, andKleophon, whose factory producedlyres.

Egypts population is growing rapidly. This puts strains on Egypts resources, since most people live in a narrow strip of land along the Nile River. Having so many people in such a small area can cause overcrowding, from schools to apartment buildings to hospitals.

About half of Egypts people live in the countryside. The rest live in cities, which are rapidly growing in population.

Non-slave workers were paid by assignment, since the workshops could not guarantee regular work. In Athens, those who worked on state projects were paid onedrachmaper day, no matter what craft they practiced. The workday generally began atsunriseand ended in the afternoon.

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Cairo is the capital and largest city in Egypt.

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