Louis-Ferdinand Cline

Louis-Ferdinand Cline

Dalkey Archive Press, London Bridge translation by Dominic Di Bernardi

In 1925, Cline left his family, never to return. Working for the newly foundedLeague of Nations, he travelled to Switzerland, England, the Cameroons, Canada, the United States, and Cuba. At this time he wrote the playLEglise(1933; The Church).

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, 1954; tr. by Marlon Jones, Dalkey Archive Press, 2009; sequel to

Dalkey Archive Press Translation by Dominic Di Bernardi of

, quoted on back of Dalkey Archive Press French Literature Series Translation by Dominic Di Bernardi of

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, a 1933 speech that was published in 1936

In June 1919, Cline went to Bordeaux and completed the second part of his baccalaurat. Through his work with the Institute Cline had come into contact, and good standing, with Monsieur Follet, the director of the medical school inRennes. On 11 August 1919, Cline married Follets daughterdith Follet, whom he had known for some time.[9]With Monsieur Follets influence, Cline was accepted as a student at the university. On 15 June 1920, his wife gave birth to a daughter, Colette Destouches. During this time, he studied intensively obtaining certificates in physics, chemistry, and natural sciences.

; 27 May 1894 1 July 1961), a Frenchnovelistpamphleteerandphysician. He developed a new style of writing that modernized French literature. His most famous work is the 1932 novel,

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Before the war, Cline campaigned for an alliance between France and Nazi Germany.[14]InLcole des cadavreshe contrasted Hitler with the French Communist party leaderMaurice Thorez, writing:

), 1933; tr. byMark Spitzerand Simon Green, Green Integer, 2003

), 1932; tr. byJohn H. P. Marks, 1934

. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, The. p.36.ISBN978-1-58567-332-2

byFrdric Vitoux, trans. byJesse Browner(1992).

Bibliowiki has original media or text related to this article:Louis-Ferdinand Cline(in thepublic domain in Canada)

San Francisco: City Light Books 1969. p. 69.

, 6 November 1946; tr. byJulien Cornell, South Atlantic Quarterly 93, no. 2, 1994

. Interview with Cline. Ce que lauteur du Voyage au bout de la nuit «pense de tout ça» , Lmancipation nationale, 21 novembre 1941, in

In 1935, British criticWilliam Empsonhad written that Cline appeared to be a man ripe forfascism.[12]Two years later Cline began a series of pamphlets containing antisemitic themes:Bagatelles pour un massacre(Trifles for a Massacre) (1937),Lcole des cadavres(The School of Corpses) (1938) andLes Beaux draps(The Fine Mess) (1941).The Fine Messwas last published in France during the German occupation. These works were characterized by a virulent antisemitism, racism and bigotry. HisTrifles for a Massacreis an endless litany critical of French Jews and their influence on French society. BothThe School of CorpsesandThe Fine Messcontain antisemitic themes.[13]

Guignols Bandand its companion novelLondon Bridgecenter on the London underworld during World War I. InLondon Bridgea sailboat appears, bearing the name King Hamsun, obviously a tribute toKnut Hamsun, another collaborationist writer. Clines autobiographical narrator recounts his disastrous partnership with a mystical Frenchman (intent on financing a trip to Tibet by winning a gas-mask competition); his uneasy relationship with Londons pimps and prostitutes and their common nemesis, Inspector Matthew of Scotland Yard.[28]

Cline regained fame in later life with a trilogy of books which described his exile:Castle to Castle, (describing the fall ofSchloss Sigmaringen),NorthandRigadoon.

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Clines best-known work is considered to beJourney to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932). It violated many of the literary conventions of the time, using the rhythms and the vocabulary of slang and vulgar speech in a more consistent and occasionally more difficult way than earlier writers, who had made similar attempts in the tradition ofFrançois Villon(notablymile Zola).[citation needed]The book was a success, but Cline was not awarded thePrix Goncourtdespite strong support. The award went toGuy Mazelines novelLes Loups(The Wolves). The voting was controversial enough to become the subject of a book (Goncourt 32by Eugne Saccomano, 1999). The first English translation was byJohn H. P. Marksin 1934. A more current English translation is byRalph Manheimin 1983.

The Golden Age of Louis-Ferdinand Cline

On ny pense pas assez cette protection de la race blanche. Cest maintenant quil faut agir, parce que demain il sera trop tard. [] Doriot sest comport comme il la toujours fait. Cest un homme il faut travailler, militer avec Doriot. [] Cette lgion si calomnie, si critique, cest la preuve de la vie. [] Moi, je vous le dis, la Lgion, cest trs bien, cest tout ce quil y a de bien

At the 50th anniversary of Clines death in 2011,Frdric Mitterrand, the French Minister of Culture and Communication, announced that Cline would be excluded from the list of 500 French Cultural Icons to be honoured that year because of his antisemitic writings.[31]For decades, the antisemitic books of the 1930s had not been reprinted because Clines wife has forbidden their publication.[32]However in 2017, the 105-year-old widow gave permission for their publication byGallimardin the spring of 2018.[32]The French government and Jewish leaders expressed concern and said they would try to intervene.[32][33]On 11 January 2018, it was reported that Gallimard was suspending publication.[34]

Cline used a working-class, spoken style of language in his writings, and attacked what he considered to be the overly polished, bourgeois language of the academy. His works influenced a broad array of literary figures, not only in France but also in theEnglish-speaking worldand elsewhere in theWestern World; this includes authors associated withmodernismexistentialismblack comedyand theBeat Generation.

Sultan bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Reply to Charges of Treason Made by the French Department of Justice

Twaynes World Author Series: Louis Ferdinand-Cline

, quoted on back of New Directions Paperbook Eighteenth Printing of

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The Voice of Modern Hatred: Tracing the Rise of Neo-Fascism in Europe

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Clines legacy survives in the writings ofSamuel BeckettQueneauandJean Genetamong others.Jean-Marie Gustave Le ClzioRobbe-Grillet, andBarthesexpressed admiration for him. In the United States, writersCharles BukowskiHenry MillerJack KerouacJoseph HellerKurt Vonnegut, Jr.William S. BurroughsEdward AbbeyJim MorrisonandKen Keseyowe an obvious debt to the author ofVoyage au bout de la nuit, yet not in terms of style in writing, but as major aesthetic, amoralistic influence.[29]Bukowski wrote first of all read Cline; the greatest writer of 2,000 years[30]Cline was also an influence onIrvine WelshGnter GrassKarl Parkinson(The Blocks) andRaymond Federman.

When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, he expressed his support forJacques Doriots recently founded collaborationist forceLegion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism(LVF):

, 1925, published as Docteur Louis Destouches (untranslated)

), 1952; tr. by Mary Hudson, U of Nebraska Press, 2003

byCharles Bukowskip.86 (1969)

The Nation, quoted in the New Directions Paperbook (Eighteenth Printing) of

Cubism in the Shadow of War: The Avant-garde and Politics in Paris, 19051914

Rponses aux accusations formules contre moi par la justice française au titre de trahison et reproduites par la Police Judiciaire danoise au cours de mes interrogatoires, pendant mon incarcration 19451946 Copenhague

Clines vocal support for theAxis powersduring theSecond World Warand his authorship ofantisemiticpamphlets has complicated his legacy ascultural icon.

edited byPhilip Rees(1991,ISBN0-13-089301-3)

Louis Destouches/Cline, a double imposture, a conference held on 22 May 1999 about Cline and Semmelweis

In March 1915, he was sent toLondonto work in the French passport office. While in London he married Suzanne Nebout but they divorced one year later.[2]In September, his arm wounds were such that he was declared unfit for military duty and was discharged. He returned to France, where he began working at a variety of jobs.

, byStphane Zagdanski, edited by Gallimard, (1993)

Clines writings are examples of black comedy, where unfortunate and often terrible things are described humorously. While his writing is often hyper-real and itspolemicqualities can often be startling, his chief strength lies in his ability to discredit almost everything and yet not lose a sense of enraged humanity. Pessimism pervades Clines fiction as his characters sense failure, anxiety, nihilism, and inertia.Will Selfhas described Clines work as an invective, which despite the reputation he would later earn as a rabid antisemite is aimed against all classes and races of people with indiscriminate abandon.[26]The narrative of betrayal and exploitation, both real and imagined, corresponds with his personal life. His two truest loves, his wife, Lucette Almanzor, and his cat, Bbert, are always mentioned with kindness and warmth.

needs additional citations forverification

Petri Liukkonen.Louis-Ferdinand Cline.

Le Pont de Londres − Guignols band II

In 1916, Cline set out for Africa as a representative of the Forestry Company of Sangha-Oubangui. He was sent to theBritish Cameroonsand returned to France in 1917.[2]Little is known about this trip except that it was unsuccessful.[7]After returning to France he worked for theRockefeller Foundation: as part of a team it was his job to travel toBrittanyteaching people how to fighttuberculosisand improve hygiene.[8]

He settled inMeudon, where he was visited by several friends and artists, among them the famous actressArletty. He became famous among theBeat Movement. BothWilliam S. BurroughsandAllen Ginsberg who was Jewish visited him in his Paris apartment during the 1950s. Cline died on 1 July 1961 of a ruptured aneurysm, the day after finishingRigadoon, and was buried in a small cemetery at Bas Meudon (part of Meudon in theHauts-de-Seinedpartement). His house burned down during the night of 23 May 1968, destroying manuscripts, furniture and mementos, but leaving his parrot Toto alive in the adjacent aviary.

In 1928, Cline returned to medicine to establish a private practice inMontmartre, in the north of Paris, specializing inobstetrics.[11]

Louis-Ferdinand ClinebyM. Thomas(1980)

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), 1949; tr. byKyra De ConinckandBilly Childish, Hangman, 1988

La Vie et lœuvre de Philippe Ignace Semmelweis

Grard Loiseaux, La Littrature de la dfaite et de la collaboration, Fayard, 1995.

Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

, edited byJoan Carreras i Mart(1977,ISBN84-300-5511-8)

Critical Essays on Louis-Ferdinand Cline

Holocaust Denial As an International Movement

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(New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998), pp. 3337

After Germanys defeat in 1945, Cline fled to Denmark. France claimed his extradition, and while the case was processed, he was imprisoned[23]inVestre Fængselfor more than a year. Named a collaborator, in 1950 he was convictedin absentiain France, sentenced to one year of imprisonment and declared anational disgrace. He was subsequently grantedamnestyand returned to France in 1951.

French military personnel of World War I

), completed in 1961 but published posthumously in 1969; tr. by Ralph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1974

. Twayne Publishers.ISBN0-8057-6256-6.

), 1936; tr. by John H. P. Marks, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1938 aka

), published posthumously in 1964; tr. byDominic Di Bernardi, Dalkey Archive Press, 1995

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See the article «lettres aux journaux» in Philippe Almras,

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George Grant and the Subversion of Modernity

Louis-Ferdinand Cline Collectionat theHarry Ransom Centerat theUniversity of Texas at Austin

Pleaseimprove itbyverifyingthe claims made and addinginline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

. ABC-CLIO. pp.878.ISBN978-0-313-34538-8

, University of Toronto Press, 1996, p.83.

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Holocaust denial as an international movement

He ended his private practice in 1931 to work in apublic dispensary.

Twaynes World Author Series: Louis Ferdinand-Cline

The only child of Fernand Destouches and Marguerite-Louise-Cline Guilloux, he was born Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches in 1894 atCourbevoie, just outside Paris in theSeinedpartement(nowHauts-de-Seine). The family came originally fromNormandyon his fathers side andBrittanyon his mothers side. His father was a middle manager in an insurance company and his mother owned a boutique where she sold antique lace.[1][2]In 1905, he was awarded hisCertificat dtudes, after which he worked as an apprentice and messenger boy in various trades.[2]

Edward Andrew, George Grants Celine, Thoughts on the Relation of Litereature and Art, Arthur Davis (ed),

Despite this, Cline could also be critical of Hitler, and of what he calledAryanbaloney.[20][21]

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Between 1908 and 1910, his parents sent him to Germany and England for a year in each country in order to acquire foreign languages for future employment.[2]From the time he left school until the age of eighteen Cline worked in various jobs, leaving or losing them after only short periods of time. He often found himself working for jewellers, first, at eleven, as an errand boy, and later as a salesperson for a local goldsmith. Although he was no longer being formally educated, he bought schoolbooks with the money he earned, and studied by himself. It was around this time that Cline started to want to become a doctor.[3]

French collaborators with Nazi Germany

We do not think enough about the protection of the white Aryan race. Now is the time to act, because tomorrow will be too late. … Doriot behaved as he always has. This is a man … one must work and campaign with. … This Legion, so maligned, so criticised, is proof of life. … I tell you, the Legion its very good, it is all that is good.[19]

James McAuley (December 27, 2017).A beloved French author was also an anti-Semite. Now his most notorious works are being republished.

Following his return from exile he lamented his ruined reputation but never voiced regret for his antisemitic works, rather preferring to make additional statements ofHolocaust denial.[24]He declared that white Aryan Christian civilization had ended with Stalingrad and that early in his life he had recognized the Jews as exploiters.[25]

In 1926, he visited America, and was sent to Detroit to study the conditions of the workers at the Ford Automotive Company. Seeing the effects of the assembly line disgusted him. His article described the plant as a sensory attack on the worker, and how this attack had literally made the worker part of the machine.

Will Self (10 September 2006).Clines Dark Journey.

International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust

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, 1944; tr. byBernard FrechtmanandJack T. Nile, 1954, Vision Press., London

. Twayne Publishers.ISBN0-8057-6256-6.

This page was last edited on 3 May 2018, at 13:31.

), 1960; tr. by Ralph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1972

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Centre for the Study of the Causes of the War

), Ph. D. thesis, 1924; tr. byRobert Allerton ParkerLittle, Brown and Company, Boston, 1937

Journey to the End of the Nightis among the most acclaimed novels of the 20th century.[citation needed]Few first novels have had a comparable impact. Written in an explosive and highly colloquial style, the book shocked most critics but found immediate success with the French reading public, which responded enthusiastically to the violent misadventures of its petit-bourgeois antihero, Bardamu, and his characteristic nihilism. The authors military experiences in World War I, his travels to colonial French West Africa, New York, and his return to postwar France all provide episodes within the sprawling narrative.[27]

Historical revisionism (negationism)

), 1957; tr. byRalph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1968

Empson, William, Some Versions of the Pastoral, Chatto & Windus, 1935, p.11

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Society of Cline Studies French association that organizes international symposia on Cline

Trifles for a Massacre English translation

Articles that may contain original research from September 2016

; 9 July 1943, in the collaborationist journal

«Mitterrand retire Cline des clbrations nationales»,

Cline, Plon. Also, Notre combat pour la nouvelle France socialiste, reprinted in

Chronology given in the Pleiade edition of his novels, volume I,Bibliothque de la Pliadeditions GallimardISBN978-2-07-011000-1, pp. LV-LVI.

. University of Alabama Press. p.101.

. New York: Delacorte Press. pp.v, xii.

Borges Travel, Hemingways Garage: Secret Histories

In February 1944, while Cline was having dinner in the German embassy in Paris with his friendsJacques Benoist-MchinPierre Drieu La RochelleandGen Paul, he asserted to German ambassadorOtto Abetzthat Hitler was dead and had been replaced by a Jewish double.[22]

In 1936, Cline publishedMort crdit(Death on the Installment Plan), presenting an innovative, chaotic, and antiheroic vision of human suffering. In it he extensively used ellipses throughout the text to enhance the rhythm and emphasise the style of speech. In both these books he showed himself to be a great stylistic innovator and a masterly storyteller. French authorJean-Paul Sartrepublicly praised Cline at this time.

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Where some critics see a progressive disintegration of personality reflected in the stylistic incoherence of his books based on his life during the war (Guignols Band,Dun château lautreandNord), others claim that the books are less incoherent than intentionally fragmented. They see the development of the style introduced withJourney to the End of the Nightcontinuing, suggesting that Cline maintained his faculties in clear working order to the end of his days. InConversations with Professor Y(1955) Cline defends his style, indicating that his heavy use of the ellipse and his disjointed sentences are an attempt to embody human emotion in written language. Cline saw literature as the art of mapping human emotions on a piece of paper.[citation needed]Such a mapping is far from natural, and it distorts the emotions.[citation needed]He likens it to looking at a stick partially immersed in a tub filled with water.[citation needed]Because of the refraction of light you see the ruler as if it were broken.Template:Luce, Stanford pp. 113-114If your aim is to give as accurate a picture of a straight ruler as is possible in this environment, then before immersing the ruler in the water you have to bend it in such a way that after refraction it will look straight.[citation needed]If you want to convey human emotions as accurately as you can on a piece of paper, you must bend them before describing them on the page. According to Cline, the tool for bending emotions is style.[citation needed]

), 1955; tr. byStanford Luce, Dalkey Archive Press, 2006

In 1912, Cline began a three-year enlistment in the12th Cuirassier Regimentstationed inRambouillet.[2]At first he was unhappy with military life, and even considered deserting. However, he adapted, and eventually attained the rank of Sergeant.[5]The beginning of the First World War brought action to Clines unit. On 25 October 1914, Cline volunteered to deliver a message, when others were reluctant to do so because of heavy German fire. NearYpres, during his attempt to deliver the message, he was wounded in his right arm. (He was not wounded in the head, contrary to a popular rumour that he perpetuated.)[6]For his bravery, Cline was awarded themdaille militairein November, and appeared one year later in the weeklylIllustr National(November 1915, p16).[2]

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), 1938; tr. by Szandor Kuragin, 2016,

During theOccupation of France, he wrote letters to several collaborationist journals, denouncing the Jews.[16]Even some Nazis thought Clines antisemitic pronouncements were so extreme as to be counter-productive. Bernhard Payr, the German superintendent of propaganda in France, considered that Cline started from correct racial notions but his savage, filthy slang and brutal obscenities spoiled his good intentions with hysterical wailing.[17][18]

By 1923, three years after he had started the medical program at Rennes, Cline had almost completed his medical degree. His doctoral thesis,The Life and Work of Ignaz Semmelweis, completed in 1924, is actually considered to be his first literary work.Ignaz Semmelweiss contribution to medicine was immense and, according to Cline, was directly proportional to the misery of his life.[10]In 1924 Cline took up the post of intern at a Paris maternity hospital.

, 1936; tr. byRobert Allerton Parker, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1937

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In 1912, in what Cline described as an act of rebellion against his parents he joined the French army, two years before the start ofWorld War Iand its mandatory French conscription. This was a time in France when, following theAgadir Crisisof 1911, nationalism reached fever pitch a period one historian described as The Hegemony of Patriotism (19111914), particularly affecting opinion in thelycesandgrandes colesof Paris.[4]

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Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism is. Who has done the most for the working man? The USSR or Hitler? Hitler has… Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler![15]

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