138: Hadrian dies of natural causes. His adopted sonAntoninus Piussucceeds him.
200 BC: El Mirador, largest earlyMayacity, flourishes.
300 BC: Construction of theGreat Pyramid of Cholula, the worlds largest pyramid by volume (theGreat Pyramid of Gizabuilt 2560 BC Egypt stands 146.5 meters, making it 91.5 meters taller), begins inCholula, Puebla, Mexico.
395:Theodosius Ioutlaws all religions other than Catholic Christianity.
700 BC: the construction ofMarib DaminArabia Felix.
220Three Kingdomsperiod begins in China after the fall ofHan Dynasty.
361:Constantius IIdies, his cousinJuliansucceeds him.
27 BC: Formation of Roman Empire:Octaviusis given titles of Princeps and Augustus by Roman Senate – beginning ofPax Romana. Formation of influentialPraetorian Guardto provide security to Emperor
54: EmperorClaudiusdies and is succeeded by his grand nephewNero.
424 BC:Nanda dynastycomes to power.
Classical antiquityis a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It refers to thetimeframeofAncient GreeceandAncient Rome.Ancient history includes the recordedGreek historybeginning in about 776 BC (FirstOlympiad). This coincides roughly with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC and the beginning of thehistory of Rome.
257 BC:Thục Dynastytakes over Việt Nam (then Kingdom of Âu Lạc)
Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest and Alienation in the Empire
1600 BC: Beginning ofHittitedominance of the EasternMediterraneanregion
337: EmperorConstantine Idies, leaving his sonsConstantius IIConstans I, andConstantine IIas the emperors of the Roman empire.
2334 or 2270 BC:Akkadian Empireis founded, dating depends upon whether theMiddle chronologyor theShort chronologyis used.
410:for the first time since 390 BC.
41: EmperorCaligulais assassinated by the Roman senate. His uncleClaudiussucceeds him.
1200-1150 BC:Bronze Age collapseinSouthwestern Asiaand in theEastern Mediterraneanregion. This period is also the setting of the
539 BC: The Fall of theBabylonian Empireand liberation of theJewsbyCyrus the Great.
2600 BC:Mature Harappanphase of the Indus Valley civilization (in present-dayPakistanandIndia) begins
Thorndike 1923, Becker 1931, MacMullen 1966, MacMullen 1990, Thomas & Wick 1993, Loftus 1996.
206 BC:Han Dynastyestablished in China, after the death ofQin Shi Huang; China in this period officially becomes aConfucianstate and opens trading connections with the West, i.e. theSilk Road.
232 BC: Death of EmperorAshoka; Decline of the Mauryan Empire
26-34:Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, exact date unknown.
149-146 BC:Third Punic Warbetween Rome and Carthage. War ends with the complete destruction of Carthage, allowing Rome to conquer modern dayTunisiaandLibya.
Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary
Libourel, Jan M. (1973). A Battle of Uncertain Outcome in the Second Samnite War.
1780 BC: Oldest Record ofHammurabis Code.
Livius. Articles on Ancient History.
500 BC:Paninistandardizes thegrammarandmorphologyofSanskritin the textAshtadhyayi. Paninis standardized Sanskrit is known asClassical Sanskrit
c. 455:Skandaguptarepels anIndo-Hephthaliteattack onIndia.
221 BC:Qin Shi Huangunifies China, end ofWarring States period; marking the beginning of Imperial rule in China which lasts until 1912. Construction of theGreat Wallby theQin Dynastybegins.
745 BC:Tiglath-Pileser IIIbecomes the new king ofAssyria. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns Assyria into an empire.
305 BC: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan)fromSeleucus I Nicator, the MacedoniansatrapofBabylonia, in return for 500 elephants.
285:Diocletianbegins a large-scale persecution ofChristians.
404 BC: End of thePeloponnesian War
4 BC: Widely accepted date (Ussher) for birth of.
544 BC: Rise ofMagadhaas the dominant power underBimbisara.
300 BC:Sangam literature(Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Canka ilakkiyam) period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Tamilakam)
776 BC: First recordedAncient Olympic Games.
380:declares the Arian faith of Christianity heretical.
508 BC:Democracyinstituted atAthens
439:Vandalshave conquered the land stretching fromMoroccotoTunisiaby this time.
49 BC: Roman Civil War betweenJulius CaesarandPompey the Great.
80BC: The city ofFlorenceis founded.
1400-400 BC:Olmeccivilization flourishes in Pre-ColumbianMexico, during MesoamericasFormativeperiod
c.785 BC: Rise of theKingdom of Kush
600 BC: Evidence of writing system appear inOaxacaused by theZapotec civilization.
499BC: King Aristagoras ofMiletusincites all of Hellenic Asia Minor to rebel against the Persian Empire, beginning theGreco-Persian Wars.
551 BC:Confucius, founder ofConfucianism, is born.
1046 BC: The Zhou force (led byKing Wu of Zhou) overthrow the last king ofShang DynastyZhou Dynastyestablished in China
. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.ISBN0-674-28777-0.
This page was last edited on 6 June 2018, at 06:07.
Thomas, Carol G.; D.P. Wick (1994).
2700 BC:Minoan Civilizationancient palace city Knossos reach 80,000 inhabitants
475 BC:Warring States periodbegins in China as theZhouking became a mere figurehead; China is annexed by regional warlords
400 BC:Zapotecculture flourishes around city ofMonte Albn
100-940:Kingdom of Aksumin the Horn of Africa
490 BC: Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion atBattle of Marathon
500 BC:Pingalauseszeroandbinary numeral system
98: After a two-year rule, EmperorNervadies of natural causes, his adopted son Trajan succeeds him.
TheIron Agewas the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. The adoption of this material coincided with other changes in some past societies often including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, although this was not always the case.
230 BC: Emergence ofSatavahanasinSouth India
Archaeological Institute of America
Decoding Ancient History: A Toolkit for the Historian as Detective
331 BC:Alexander the GreatdefeatsDarius III of Persiain theBattle of Gaugamela, completing his conquest of Persia.
117: Trajan dies of natural causes. His adopted sonHadriansucceeds him. Hadrian pulls out of Iraq and Armenia.
406: Romans are expelled from Britain.
111 BC:First Chinese dominationofViệt Namin the form of the Nanyue Kingdom.
722 BC:Spring and Autumn periodbegins in China;Zhou Dynastys power is diminishing; the era of theHundred Schools of Thought.
321 BC:Chandragupta Mauryaoverthrows the Nanda Dynasty ofMagadha.
546 BC: Cyrus the Great overthrowsCroesusKing of Lydia.
44 BC: Julius Caesar murdered byMarcus Brutusand others; End of Roman Republic; beginning ofRoman Empire.
431 BC: Beginning of thePeloponnesian warbetween the Greek city-states
9Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the ImperialRoman Armys bloodiest defeat.
. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.ISBN0-13-200205-1.
3000 BC: First known use ofpapyrusbyEgyptians
335:Samudraguptabecomes the emperor of theGupta empire.
285:Diocletianbecomes emperor of Rome and splits the Roman Empire intoEasternandWesternEmpires.
The date used as the end of the ancient era is arbitrary. The transition period from Classical Antiquity to theEarly Middle Agesis known asLate Antiquity. Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century (c. AD 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of theByzantine EmpireunderHeraclius. TheEarly Middle Agesare a period in the history ofEuropefollowing the fall of theWestern Roman Empirespanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. Not all historians agree on the ending dates of ancient history, which frequently falls somewhere in the 5th, 6th, or 7th century.Westernscholars usually date the end of ancient history with thefall of Romein AD 476, the death of the emperorJustinian Iin AD 565, or thecoming of Islamin AD 632 as the end ofancient European history.
The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome
325:Constantine Iorganizes theFirst Council of Nicaea.
c. 600 BC: Rise of theSao civilisationnear Lake Chad
250 BC: Rise ofParthia(Ashkâniân), the second native dynasty of ancient Persia
c. 400 BC: Rise of theGaramantesas an irrigation-based desert state in the Fezzan region of Libya
323 BC: Death of Alexander the Great atBabylon.
epic poems (which were composed about four centuries later).
Pages with login required references or sources
2200-2100 BC:4.2 kiloyear event: a severearidificationphase, likely connected to aBond event, which was registered throughout mostNorth AfricaMiddle Eastand continentalNorth America. Related droughts very likely caused the collapse of theOld KingdominEgyptand of theAkkadian EmpireinMesopotamia.
Directory of Ancient Historians in the USA, 2nd ed
byAeschylus, the only survivingtrilogyofancient Greek plays, is performed.
280:Emperor WuestablishedJin Dynastyproviding a temporary unity of China after the devastatingThree Kingdomsperiod.
. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
2800 BCKot Dijiphase of theIndus Valley Civilizationbegins
c. 3000 BC:Cucuteni-Trypillian cultureinRomaniaand theUkraine
History of Magic and Experimental Science
Millennia:4th millennium BC3rd millennium BC2nd millennium BC1st millennium BC1st millennium
600 BC:Pandyan kingdominSouth India.
550 BC: Foundation of thePersian EmpirebyCyrus the Great.
126: Hadrian completes thePantheonin Rome.
68: EmperorNerocommits suicide, prompting theYear of the four emperorsin Rome.
407-409:Visigothsand other Germanic tribes cross into Roman-Gaulfor the first time.
. Claremont, Calif.: Regina Books.ISBN0-941690-87-3.
c. 3000 BC:Stonehengeconstruction begins. In its first version, it consisted of a circular ditch and bank, with 56 wooden posts.
330:Constantinopleis officially named and becomes the capital of the eastern Roman Empire.
Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.ISBN0-19-512332-8. page 3.
c. 200 BC:Chera dynastyin South India.
2600 BC: Oldest known surviving literature:Sumeriantexts fromAbu Salabikh, including the
It is used to refer to various other periods of ancient history, likeAncient Egyptancient Mesopotamia(such as, Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer) or otherearly civilizations of the Near East. It is less commonly used in reference tocivilizations of the Far East.
Kristiansen, Kristian; Larsson, Thomas B. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Society. Cambridge University Press.
563BC:Siddhartha Gautama(Buddha), founder ofBuddhismis born as a prince of theShakya tribe, which ruled parts ofMagadha, one of the Maha Janapadas.
6 BC: Earliest theorized date for birth ofJesusofNazareth. Roman succession:Gaius CaesarandLucius Caesargroomed for the throne.
200s: TheEmpire established inMaritime Southeast Asia.
3000 BC:Jiroft civilizationbegins inIran
70: Destruction ofJerusalemby the armies ofTitus.
238: Defeat ofGordian III(238244),Philip the Arab(244249), andValerian(253260), byShapur Iof Persia, (Valerian was captured by the Persians).
37: Death of EmperorTiberius, ascension of his nephewCaligulato the throne.
Lobell, Jarrett (JulyAugust 2002).Etruscan Pompeii.
. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.ISBN0-691-03601-2.
292: The capital of the Roman empire is officially moved from Rome to Mediolanum (modern dayMilan).
161: Death ofAntoninus Pius. His rule was the only one in which Rome did not fight in a war.
106-117: Roman Empire at largest extent underEmperor Trajanafter having conquered modern-dayRomaniaIraqandArmenia.
890BC: Approximate date for the composition of the
43:RomeentersBritainfor the first time.
(1): 718.doi10.2307/294039ISSN1086-3168JSTOR294039 viaJSTOR.
18 BC:Three Kingdomsperiod begins inKorea. Thetemple of Jerusalemis reconstructed.
480 BC: Persian invasion of Greece byXerxes; Battles ofThermopylaeandSalamis
326 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Indian kingPorusin theBattle of the Hydaspes River.
1600 BC: The beginning ofShang Dynastyin China, evidence of a fully developedChinese writing system
432 BC: Construction of the Parthenon is completed
ofItaly; most frequently cited date for the end of ancient history.
313:Edict of Milandeclared that the Roman Empire would tolerate all forms of religious worship.
378:Battle of Adrianople, Roman army is defeated by theGermanic tribes.
226: Fall of the Parthian Empire and Rise of theSassanian Empire.
121 BC: Roman armies enterGaulfor the first time.
The invention of writing; Western Washington University
3200 BC: Rise ofProto-ElamiteCivilization inIran
TheBronze Agerefers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included techniques forandtinfrom naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then combining those ores to cast bronze. These naturally-occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes inwestern Asiabefore 3000 BC. In some parts of the world, aCopper Agefollows theNeolithicand precedes the Bronze Age.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
(Common Erayears inastronomical year numbering)
1600 BC:Minoan civilizationonCreteis destroyed by theMinoan eruptionofSantoriniisland.
429:VandalsenterNorth Africafrom Spain for the first time
c. 512 BC:Darius I(Darius the Great) of Persia, subjugates easternThraceMacedoniasubmits voluntarily, and annexesLibya, Persian Empire at largest extent.
192:Kingdom of ChampainCentral Việt Nam.
476:Romulus Augustus, lastWestern Roman Emperoris forced to abdicate byOdoacer, a chieftain of the; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia toinConstantinoplein return for the title of
3200 BC:Norte Chico civilizationbegins inPeru
525 BC:Cambyses IIofPersiaconquersEgypt.
455: Vandals sack Rome, capture Sicily and Sardinia.
1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by theCemetery H culture; The beginning ofPoverty Point CivilizationinNorth America
350:Constantius IIis left sole emperor with the death of his two brothers.
Timeline of Ancient World History (AWH) is thehistorical events in timeof the documentedancient pastfrom the beginning ofrecorded historyuntil theEarly Middle Ages.
753BC: Founding ofRome(traditional date)
Centuries:34th BC33rd BC32nd BC31st BC30th BC29th BC28th BC27th BC26th BC25th BC24th BC23rd BC22nd BC21st BC20th BC19th BC18th BC17th BC16th BC15th BC14th BC13th BC12th BC11th BC10th BC9th BC8th BC7th BC6th BC5th BC4th BC3rd BC2nd BC1st BC1st AD2nd AD3rd AD4th AD
447 BC: Building of theParthenonat Athens started
2600 BC: Emergence ofMayaculture in theYucatn Peninsula
549 BC:Mahavira, founder ofJainismis born.
79: Destruction ofPompeiiby the volcanoVesuvius.
509 BC: Expulsion of the lastKing of Rome, founding ofRoman Republic(traditional date).
14: Death of(Octavian), ascension of his adopted sonTiberiusto the throne.
202 BC:Scipio AfricanusdefeatsHannibalatBattle of Zama.
2700 BC: TheOld Kingdombegins in Egypt
660BC: purported date of the accession ofJimmu, the mythical firstEmperor of Japan.
William Smith,A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. J. Murray, 1891
c. 1180 BC: Disintegration ofHittite Empire
207 BC:Kingdom of Nan Yuehextends fromCantonto North Việt Nam .
612 BC: An alliance between the Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians succeeds in destroyingNinevehand causing subsequent fall of the Assyrian empire.
c. 100 BC:Chola dynastyrises in prominence.
255 BC:Ashokasends a Buddhist missionary lead by his son who was Mahinda Thero (Buddhist monk) to Sri Lanka (then Lanka)Mahinda (Buddhist monk)
273BC:Ashokabecomes the emperor of theMauryan Empire
2560 BC: King Khufu completes theGreat Pyramid of Giza. TheLand of Puntin the Horn of Africa first appears in Egyptian records around this time.
1500 BC: Composition of theRigvedais completed